During his career within the Algerian Government he held numerous important offices. In 1970, he was appointed as Ambassador in France, a position he held until 1979, the year he became the Ambassador of the Permanent Mission of Algeria to the United Nations in New York. From 1982 until 2001, Mohammed Bedjaoui served as a Judge at International Court of Justice. In 2002, he was elected President of the Constitutional Council of Algeria. He was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs in 2005 and held this position until 2007.
Mohammed Bedjaoui authored a number of books and around 300 scientific articles. He holds several distinctions and received numerous honours. He is doctor honoris causa of a few dozen of universities.