Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was President of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010. During her Presidency, she refused to sign any execution order, commuted all death sentences into life imprisonment and eventually abolished the death penalty in 2006. She had already pronounced her opposition against the death penalty when she was appointed Senator in 1992, a position in which she remained until 1998. From 1998 to 2001, before holding the highest office in her country, she acted as Vice-President of the Philippines. Currently, Ms Macapagal-Arroyo is a Representative Member of the Philippine Congress.
In the course of her distinguished political career, Ms Macapagal-Arroyo was appointed Secretary of Social Welfare and Development (1998-2000), Undersecretary of Trade and Industry (1989-1992), Executive Director on the Garments and Textile Export Board (1987-1991) as well as Assistant Secretary of Trade and Industry (1986-1989).
Ms Macapagal-Arroyo holds a doctor degree in Philosophy of Economics from the University of the Philippines, 1985. She was Assistant Professor of Economics, 1978-1986, teaching at various periods at the University if the Philippines School of Economics, Ateneo de Manila University, Assumption College, St. Scholatica’s College, Maryknoll College. In 1978, she received her Master of Arts in Economics, from the Ateneo de Manila University.